Management options for the Golden Apple Snail

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Egg laying

 

 

Foreword

The golden apple snail, popularly known as "golden kuhol'' [Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck], is one of the major pest problems in rice production. In 1989, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated that yield tosses owing to this pest ranged from 1% to 40% of the planted area in the Philippines, resulting in huge production loss.

To control this pest, many farmers resort to the massive use of synthetic molluscicides that are expensive and broad spectrum, affecting non-target organisms including human beings.

This primer was prepared to present additional alternatives and information on golden apple snail management. It contains many new information to reduce the misuse of molluscicides. Discussed here are details of the biology of golden apple snail, including several management options that farmers could use to manage this pest in their farms.

A new recipe for golden apple snail is now available. The product is a chicharon (cracker) that is devoid of water, has no offensive odor, with longer shelf-life, and can be readily used as an ingredient in other recipes.

We hope that this primer wilt help our agricultural technicians, extension workers, and farmers better understand the nature, spread, and management options for golden apple snail.


Leocadio S. Sebastian
Executive Director

 


Introduction

The golden apple snail, popularly known as "golden kuhol" [Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck], was introduced into the Philippines between 1982 and 1984. It came from South America (Brazil and Argentina) via Taiwan. Its high nutritive value as food for human beings and farm animals generated interest among both public and private sectors to propagate the production of this organism. However, a few years after its introduction, the golden apple snail became a major pest of rice.

Of the 3 million (M) hectares of rice lands in the Philippines, 1.2-1.6M hectares are infested with golden apple snail. In 1990, P212M was spent to control this pest. The first account that it had become a major pest was recorded in 1986 when about 300 hectares of irrigated rice farms in Region 2 (Cagayan Valley) were heavily damaged. Since then, rice area infested with this pest has been increasing until it became a national menace.


Characteristics of adult golden apple snails

The golden apple snail lives for 2-6 years with high fertility.

Shell is tight brown; flesh is creamy white to golden pinkish or orange.

Size depends on the availability of food.

Most destructive stage is when the length of the shell is from 10 mm (about the size of a corn seed) to 40 mm (about the size of a pingpong ball).*

Female golden apple snail operculum (a1) is concave white it is convex in male (a2).

The shell of the female adult snail (b1) curves inward; the male shell (b2) curves outward.*

Based on the study conducted by MS Dela Cruz, RC Joshi, and AR Martin.

shells


 

Mode and signs of damage

 

 


Life cycle

Life cycle

Eggs

 

Hatchlings and adults

 

Where they live


Feeding habits and host range


Naturally occurring biological control agents

 


land preparation

Management options

During land preparation

 

plants
Screens
Screens on the water inlet reduce entry of golden snails to the paddy.



During transplanting

Draining
Draining the field occasionally will limit snail mobility and feeding activity.


Handpicking
Handpicking is recommended for large adult golden snails as these are not fed upon by ducks.

After harvesting


 

 

 

 

Integrated management scheme based on rice growth stages

Pre-establishment
Crop establishment
Post production
Land Preparation
Vegetative
Reproductive
Maturity
After harvesting
A
B and C
D
E
 
A = Duck pasturing, handpicking, constructing canalets, use of plant attractants and destruction of egg masses
B = Handpicking, duck pasturing, screen trapping, staking, and destruction of egg masses
C = Water management, handpicking, use of plant attractants, and destruction of egg masses
D = Sustain handpicking and destruction of adults and eggs
E = Duck pasturing, dry Land preparation



 

New information

A study conducted by researchers MS Dela Cruz, RC Joshi, and AR Martin from 1999 to 2000 at PhilRice Maligaya found the following:

 


Nutritive value of golden apple snail


Nutritive value of golden apple snail flesh per 100g

- Food energy 83 calories
- Protein 12.2 g
- Fat 0.4 g
- Carbohydrates 6.6 g
- Ash 3.2 g
- Phosphorus 61 mg
- Sodium 40 mg
- Potassium 17 mg
- Riboflavin 12 mg
- Niacin 1.8 mg
- Other food values: Vit. C, zinc, copper, manganese, and iodine

 


List of Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority-registered molluscicides as of 31 March 2000

Formulation
type
Active
Ingredient
Product
Name
Concen-
tration
Label Recom-
bination
Toxicity
Category *
Company
P
Metaldehyde
Metabait
6% Pellets
60 g/kg
2-4 kg/ha
4-8 kg/ha
4
Agchem Mftg.
Corp.
F
Metaldehyde
Meta Flo
300 g/L
16-20 tbps
/16L water
2
WP
Metaldehyde
Porsnail
74 WP
750 g/kg
10 tbsp/16L
water
G
Metaldehyde
Rescue
10 G
100 g/kg
P
Metaldehyde
SnailKil
6% P
60 g/kg
2-4 kg/ha(T)
4-8 kg/ha(DS)
4
F
Chlorothalonil
Shield
500 g/L
4
Aldiz Inc.
EC
Niclosamide
Bayluscide
250 EC
250 g/L
7-14 tbsp/16L
water
4
Bayer Phils., Inc.
WP
Bayluscide
70 WP
700 g/kg
4
EC
Niclosamide
Hit 250 EC
250 g/L
7-14 tbsp/16L
water
4
Cropking
Chem., Inc.
WP
Niclosamide
Trap 70 WP
700 g/kg
35 g/16L water
4
Dow Agro
Sciences B.V.,
Phils.
PEL
Metaldehyde
Bayonet
6% Pellets
60g/kg
2-4 kg/ha(T)
4-8 kg/ha(DS)
4
Jardine Davies;
Inc.
PEL
Metaldehyde
Stop 6%
Pellets
60 g/kg
2-4 kg/ha(T)
4-8 kg/ha(DS)
4
Leads Agri
Product Corp.
WP
Niclosamide
Archer
50WP
500 g/kg
4
Nichimen Corp.
PEL
Metaldehyde
Ciba Meta
Bait
60 g/kg
2-4 kg/ha(T)
4-8 kg/ha(DS)
4
Novartis Agro
Phils., Inc.
F
Metaldehyde
Meta Flo
600 FL
300 g/L
16-20 tbsp/16L
water
2
P
Tannins,
Glycosides,
Sterols, and
Flavanoids
Kuhol P
245 g/kg
20 kg/ha
4
Pro Green
Phils., Inc.
EC
Niclosamide
Moluxide
250 EC
250g/L
7-14 tbsp/16L
water
4
Transworld
Trdg.

EC - Emulsiflable Concentrate, F - Flowable, G - Granule, P - Powder, PEL - Pellet, WP - Wettable Powder, T - Transplanted, DS - Direct Seeded, tbsp - tablespoon.
*Based on World Health Organization, classification by hazards: 2 - moderately hazardous; 4 - unlikely to present acute hazard in normal case

 


References

 

Acknowledgements

For more information, contact:
Crop Protection Division
Philippine Rice Research Institute
Maligaya, Science City of Munos, 3119 Nueva Ecija
Tel. Nos.: (044) 456-0285; -0113 local 227

Published 2001 by the Philippine Rice Research Institute. Readers are
encouraged to reproduce the contents of this bulletin with
acknowledgment.

 

About DA-PhilRice

The Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) is a government corporation attached to the
Department of Agriculture (DA). Executive Order 1061 approved on November 5, 1985 and
amended by EO 60 dated Nov. 7, 1986 created PhilRice to help develop high-yielding technologies
so that farmers can produce enough rice for all Filipinos. PhilRice accomplishes this mission
through research, technology promotion, and policy advocacy, which are implemented through a
network that includes 57 agencies and 104 seed centers strategically located nationwide.

Its interdisciplinary programs include the following: (1) direct-seeded and (2) transplanted
irrigated lowland rice; (3) hybrid rice; (4) rice for adverse environments; (5) rice-based farming
systems; (6) rice and rice-based products; (7) policy research and advocacy; and (8) technology
promotion and development. With these programs, PhilRice aims to develop and promote
technologies that are ecosystem-based, location- and problem-specific, and profitable to the
Filipino farmers.

 

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