Bibliography on the golden apple snail (Pomacea spp.)



golden apple snails



Crop Protection Division
Department of Agriculture-Philippine Rice Research Institute
Maligaya, Science City of Muñoz
Nueva Ecija, Philippines



1/ Freshwater Aquaculture Center, Central Luzon State University Nueva Ecija, Philippines 3120 (e-mail:
2/ Crop Protection Division, Philippine Rice Research Institute, Department of Agriculture, Maligaya, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija Philippines 3119 (e-mail:





The golden apple snail, popularly known as golden kuhol or miracle snail in the Philippines, is an introduced aquatic gastropod from South America. It is presently considered as a rice pest of national importance. The illegal introduction of the golden apple snail took place in the 1980s through the aquarium trade. It was initially introduced by the private sector as an aquaculture species, particularly as a cheap source of protein. Later, it found its way to waterways and ricefields. In 1995, the reported damage of golden apple snails in rice farming was estimated in more than 800,000 hectares all over the country. Estimated rice yield loss from golden apple snail infestation from 1985 to 1991 in the Philippines increased along with expanding infestation. Instead of becoming a boom to food production it became a bane in rice farming. Since then, researches on varied subjects, particularly on its control in rice farming, have been investigated.

Presently, two significant bibliographies on golden apple snail and other molluscs exist which can be found in Acosta and Pullin (1991) and Cariaso et al. (1993). Literatures listed in the two bibliographies are not included in the present compilation. Eight years have passed since the two bibliographies were published, but a number of citations pertaining to golden apple snail have accumulated. Over one hundred literatures covering varied topics, gathered from various sources are listed in this bibliography to supplement earlier published bibliographies. These literatures can be accessed either at the library of the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), or from the authors of this compilation or internet website

We hope that this publication will be useful to researchers, field workers, policy makers and others who are concerned with the golden apple snail. We encourage all interested individuals and institutions to exchange with the authors either published or unpublished information about the snail. Lastly, we acknowledge deeply the assistance of librarians from DA-PhilRice. We also thank Elaine E. Joshi, DA PhilRice Library for editing and providing assistance on the proper citation of information from the internet sources.

The Authors






Arsenia G. Cagauan, Ravindra C. Joshi and Mario S. Dela Cruz, 2001
last update: 18/01/2002